Tackling stubborn fat with mechanical stimulation

We are facing a global obesity epidemic, the causes of which are multifactorial and complex. Tackling obesity requires consideration of biology, physiology, ecology and societal environment. The increased prevalence of obesity contributes directly to the appearance of chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes and various cardiovascular diseases.

Obesity is a disorder of the “fat organ” affecting many functions. An obese person has an excess of adipose tissue (AT) and the adipose cell (adipocyte) is one of the important building blocks of our AT. We have between 40 and more than 100 billion of them. Women tend to distribute fat mass differently to men.

The AT is not limited to adipocytes exclusively. It is a complex tissue in which mature adipocytes involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism and the production of some hormones can be distinguished. In addition, a heterogeneous cell population constitutes the vascular stromal fraction (VSF). It contains adipocyte progenitor cells, preadipocytes and various vascular and immune system cells.

The study of AT vascularisation and innervation has revealed that fat deposits are not homogeneously irrigated and innervated. The extracellular matrix (ECM) that provides the structure of the AT contains various types of collagens, fibronectin, laminin, elastins and proteoglycans. There is significant remodelling during the development of fat mass.

The phenomenon can go as far as the appearance of fibrotic areas in the AT of obese people. Studies underline the major role of the ECM in fat mass expansion and on adipocyte metabolism.

Adipocytes play an essential role in storing energy from nutrients such as glucose and fatty acids (from ingested food) in the form of triglycerides; this is lipogenesis. Excessive storage leads to increased adipocyte size and expansion of fat mass. These adipocyte lipid reserves can be mobilised as needed through lipolysis, a complex process ensuring the hydrolysis of triglycerides stored in the lipid droplet of the white adipocyte. It induces the release of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and glycerol by that cell. Lipolysis is a very specific function of white adipocytes, activated by prolonged fasting and especially by physical activity.

How does mechanical stimulation Endermologie work on the adipocyte?

A study conducted by Professor Max Lafontan, published in the journal Obesity Facts, showed the adipocyte, when in the lipogenesis mode (storage of fat), has more alpha 2 receptors, which inhibit lipolysis (fat release). When we use the mechanical stimulation of Endermologie, we increase another good receptor called the beta receptor, which helps release the lipids, sugars and cholesterol out of the adipocyte. These are then released into the bloodstream and into muscle as energy.

Professor Lafontan’s study has shown that mechanical stimuli applied with a mechano-stimulation device (Endermologie) on female femoral AT were able to have an impact on adipocyte reactivity. Mechanical massage of the AT promotes a better lipolytic reactivity of adipocytes and vascular vasodilatory responses. Recovery of a higher lipolytic efficiency in an AT known for its reaction inertia could be of an important benefit if combined with physical activity training programmes, known to enhance mobilisation of non-esterified fatty acids from adipocytes and their oxidation by active skeletal muscle.

This is a sponsored story in partnership with LPG.

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